KURT BERGSTROM --
THIS DAY IN HISTORY
THIS DAY IN HISTORY
(first & foremost)
(first & foremost)
65 years ago today
The great loss of lives during the battle of Iwo Jima and other Pacific islands gave US leaders a clear picture of the casualties that would happen with an invasion of Metropolitan Japan. Of the 22,060 Japanese soldiers entrenched on Iwo Jima, 21,844 died either from fighting or by ritual suicide. Only 216 were captured during the battle. According to the official Navy Department Library website, "The 36-day (Iwo Jima) assault resulted in more than 26,000 American casualties, (from 3- Marine Corps Divisions) including 6,800 dead." 19,217 wounded.
To put this into context, the 82-day Battle of Okinawa lasted from early April until mid-June 1945 and U.S. casualties (10th Army, out of 5 Army and 2+ Marine Corps Divisions) were over 62,000, of which over 12,000 were killed or missing. The Imperial Japanese 32d Army, defending Okinawa, had 3 divisions, & 4 separate brigades, with 67,000+ troops, augmented by 30-40,000 local militia & patriotic organizations.
Appleman, Roy E.; James M. Burns; Russell A. Gugeler; John Stevens (2000).
Okinawa: the last battle
Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History
EVERY PURPLE HEART ISSUED SINCE THE END OF WW2 HAS COME FROM THE STOCK ORDERED FOR AWARDING DUE TO WOUNDS & DEATHS THAT WOULD HAVE OCCURRED IN THE INVASION OF JAPAN.
The U.S. military had nearly 500,000 Purple Heart medals manufactured in anticipation of potential casualties from the planned invasion of Japan. To the present date, all the American military casualties of the 65 years following the end of World War II-including the Korean, Vietnam Wars, and Gulf Wars Senior & Junior -have not exceeded that number. In 2003, there were still 120,000 of these Purple Heart medals in stock. Because of the number available, combat units in Iraq and Afghanistan were able to keep Purple Hearts on-hand for immediate award to wounded soldiers on the field.
Giangreco, Dennis M. & Moore, Kathryn
"Are New Purple Hearts Being Manufactured to Meet the Demand?"
History News Network (December 1, 2003), Retrieved December 4, 2006
Keep in mind that the Pacific Island campaigns never involved the vast numbers of civilians they would have with an invasion of heavily populated metropolitan Japan. Where there were a civilian populace, Saipan & Okinawa, they committed mass suicides, jumping from cliffs........My 2 ¢
Wargame it out, 'Operation Olympic' its a solitaire game, with the emphasis on keeping casualties low. It came with S&T 45.
41 years ago today
The democrats in the House of Representatives vote to impeach President Richard Nixon.
Which leads to Nixon’s resignation on the 8th.
Article 2 of the impeachment proceedings—
accused Nixon of “….accessing private tax records from the IRS and directing the IRS to audit, investigate and otherwise harass political opponents.”
also accused Nixon of “…. using the electronic surveillance and the resources of the FBI to spy on Americans without national security or law enforcement justification.”
Article 3 of the impeachment proceedings—
“In refusing to produce these papers and things Richard M. Nixon, substituting his judgment as to what materials were necessary for the inquiry, interposed the powers of the Presidency against the lawful subpoenas of the House of Representatives, thereby assuming to himself functions and judgments necessary to the exercise of the sole power of impeachment vested by the Constitution in the House of Representatives.”
Benghazi, Fast & Furious. IRS targeting anyone?
The next time you think the media is reporting fairly, keep this in mind.
General Nicholas Herkimer falls at the Battle of Oriskany, 1777
Peugeot leaves the US car market, 1991
First execution by the electric chair, Auburn Prison, NY, 1890
Gertrude Ederle becomes the 1st woman to successfully swim the English Channel, 1926